Meath Geography1845.
The Parliamentary Gazetteer 0f Ireland 1844-1845 Vol.2.
...
A large county of the province of Leinster. It is bounded, on the north, by the province of Ulster and the county of Louth; on the east, by the Irish sea and the county of Dublin; on the south, by the county of Kildare; on the south west, by King's county; and on the west, by the county of Westmeath. Its length of contact with the county of Cavan, measured in a series of straight lines, is 29 miles; with co. Monaghan, 3; with co. Louth, 21; with the Irish sea, 5 1/2; with co. Dublin, 23; with co. Kildare, 23; with King's co., 41; and with co. Westmeath, 30. The landward boundary line is formed for a few miles with co. Louth bv the Boyne, and with Kildare by the Boyne and the Blackwater; and it passes, at remote intervals, through lakes, along watersheds, and down the course of small streams; but, in a general view, it is strictly artificial. The greatest length of the county, in the direction of east south east by east, from Lough Sheelin to the Irish sea, at the boundary with co. Dublin, is 36 1/2 miles; and the greatest breadth, in the opposite direction, is 32 miles; but, exclusive of their comparatively small wings, which project toward respectively the east, the south west, and the west north west, the greatest length is 33 miles from north to south, and the breadth is from 10 3/4 to 22 1/2. The area comprehends 547,391 acres of arable land, 16,033 of uncultivated land, 12,767 of continuous plantations, 464 of towns, and 3,244 of water, in all,579,899 acres.
...
Surface.
...
The brief extent of coast extends in the direction of south by east, has nearly a quite straight sea line, and consists of a low beach, skirted by sand banks and low hills. The whole county may, in a general view, he regarded as a chief and very characteristic part of the great central plain of Ireland; all of an aggregately champaign character; prevailingly fertile, verdant, and an eminent portion of "the Emerald Isle;" hilly over a small district in the west, and variegated by hills and swells in many districts of the north and the interior, but nowhere mountainous, or rugged, or lifted away from its proud, rich character of a grand expanse of the very finest champaign country. Most of such hills as exist are detached or isolated in position, soft in outline, green or golden in dress, and skirted off into undulations or little tableaus; and, with few exceptions, they possess a bare sufficiency of height and character to relieve the circumjacent plain from a tone of monotony. The principal, together with the altitudes of their summits above sea level, are
Mount Iver, 563 feet, on the northern border, and connected with the south western heights of Co. Louth;
Red Mountain, 402, on the right bank of the Boyne, between Slane and Drogheda;
four heights, 402, 530, 550. and 396, in the central district of the barony of Upper Duleek,
and from east south east to south south east of the village of Duleek; twelve heights, 467, 380, 361, 258, 334, 558. 320, 475, 251, 384, 322, and 304,
within a circuit of 44 miles around the village of Dunshaughlin; three heights, 376, 393, and 406, between Garadice and Rathcor;
the Hill of Ward, 390, immediately northeast of Athboy;
Corrickleck, 599, on the north border, immediately north of Nohber;
Scriboge, 618, 3 miles west of Nobber;
a height, 629, on the northern boundary, due north west of ScribogeI
and Slieve Nacalliagh, 904, between Crossakeel and Oldcastle.
...
Waters.
The river Boyne begins to touch the county of Meath not far below its origin in the county of Kildare; traces the boundary between these counties, down to the north east district of Upper Moyfenragh; flows north eastward through the interior of Meath, dividing it into two nearly equal parts; and then turning eastward, separates the barony of Lower Duleek from the county of Louth and the borough of Drogheda. It traverses some of the most fertile and best improved districts of Meath; and constitutes a boundary to every barony of this county which touches its banks. It washes the towns of Trim, Navan, and Slane; and is navigable, in part naturally, and in part with artificial aid, from the sea to Navan. The Yellow river traces the south boundary of Upper Moyfenragh with King's co., a brief distance above its embouchure on the left bank of the Boyne. The Upper Blackwater comes sluggishly in from Kildare, and flows along part of the boundary with that county and across a wing of Moyfenragh, to the right bank of the Boyne 2 miles above Scariff bridge. The Deel comes in from Westmeath, and flows eastward across the north west wing of Upper Moyfenragh, to the left side of the Boyne, near the mouth of the Blackwater. The Stonyford river rises on the west border of Meath, and flows south eastward across a wing of Westmeath, and through the barony of Lune, to the Boyne at Scariff bridge. The Lower Blackwater comes in from co. Cavan, and flows south eastward past the town of Kells to the Boyne at the town of Navan. The Moynalty river comes in from co. Cavan, and flows south south eastward, and past the village of Moynalty, to the Blackwater, 2 miles below Kells. The Mattock traces the boundary several miles with co. Louth to the left track of the Boyne. The Nanny Water rises 3 or 4 miles east south east of Navan, and flows east nortb east ward, and past the village of Duleek, to the Irish Sea, midway between the mouth of the Boyne and the boundary with co. Dublin. A rivulet, of brief length of course, flows along the boundary with Co. Dublin to the sea. The headstreams of the Tolka river, and two or three tiny affluents of the other Dublin rivulets and of the Liffey, drain a small band of country on the east border and in the southeast corner of Meath.
A portion of Lough Sheelin, amounting to 1,161 acres, 26 perches, lies within the barony of Fore, at the western extremity of the west north westward wing of the county. All the other lakes of both the boundaries and the interior of Meath are small: the principal on the boundaries are Loughs Glass, Bane, Annagb, and Naneagh, on the south west boundary of the barony of Fore, Lough Ervey, on the north boundary of Lower Kells, and Lough Ballvhoe, on the north boundary of Lower Slane; and the principal in the interior are Loughs Whitewood, Breaky, and Newcastle, in Lower Kells, Loughs Brackan and Rahans in Lower Slane, and Lough Croboy in Upper Moyfenragh.
...
Climate.
Meath has a lower temperature than the western counties of Ireland, and leas rain that the upland counties of even the north and the south. A frosty and comparatively dry winter is usually succeeded by a season of good crops; and an open or wet winter is usually followed by a season of comparatively indifferent crops. North and north east winds prevail from the first of March till the middle or near the end of May; south and south west winds prevail during another third of the year; and winds from all quarters blow in succession or rotation during the remaining third of the year. A season of poor crops rarely follows a drought, but often suceeds a long continuance of rain. The farmers look for rain and wind in May and June, and are of opinion that the subsequent weather cannot be too dry or too hot for the cereal crops.
...
Minerals.

Excepting a district of about 50 or 55 square miles in the extreme north, nearly all the county north of the latitude of Kells and the confluence of the Boyne and Mattock, and also a district of 7 miles by 4 on the coast between the Nanny Water and the boundary with co. Dublin, consist of transition rocks, principally greywacke slate, fissile clay slate, quartzose slate, and chlorite slate. A small tract of the excepted district in the extreme north, zoned round from contact with the transition region by a formation of carboniferous limestone, and situated round the junction point with the counties of Cavan and Monaghan, is occupied by the rocks of the coal measures; but, though repeatedly and laboriously examined, it is not known to contain any coal which would compensate the cost of mining. Two or three nodules occur, in one or two parts of the county, of protruded crystalline greenstone. All the vast remainder of Meath consists of carboniferous limestone, and forms a conspicuous part of the grand floetz limestone field of Ireland. Part of this formation, within the county, belongs to the calp or black shale series, and exhibits alternations of impure black argillaceous limestone with black shale containing balls of grey ironstone. The strata of the lower limestone series crop out from beneath the beds of the black shale series; and consist principally of a yellow sandstone, occasionally interstratified with dark grey shale and dark-grey limestone. Both marl and limestone abound.
...
Soils.

The soils of Meath vary from deep rich loam to the lightest sandy soil; but those which prevail are strong clayey loams, of various depths, and lying upon a substratum of limestone gravel. The soil of the lower grounds of the barony of Slane is a light earth, upon a stiff clay bottom; and that of the hilly parts, between Collon and Kells and toward Ardee, is either a strong silicious gravel, or more commonly what is provincially termed rye soil. The soil of the baronies of Kells and Morgallion is a deep rich loam, extremely productive, and suitable alike for grazing and for tillage. The soil like the surface of Demifore, is more diversified than that of any other barony in the county; but may be summarily described as a deep rich loam in the valleys and hollows, and a dry gravelly elay, of from 12 to 18 inches deep upon the hills. The soil of Skreen is, in general, a deep rich earth, upon a fine limestone gravel; and though not the best for barley, it throws up an uncommon quantity of fine, rich feeding grass. The soil of the baronies of Navan is a rich earth of various depths, sometimes on a substratum of limestone gravel or limestone rock, and sometimes on a substratum of very retentive ferruginous clay and gravel. The soil of the Athboy district of Lune is, in general, a very rich mould, upon a gravelly but not calcareous bottom; and that of the Kildalkey district is chiefly a poor, hungry, cold, clay ground, rather flat, very retentive, and in some places spouty and overrun with rushes. The soil of a large part of the baronies of Deece and Moyfenragh is a light, gravelly, hungry earth, upon an irretentive gravelly bottom; and that of the southwest district of these baronies, noticed in three divisions from west to east, is first a poor stiff clay, next a fine, deep tillage soil, and next a coarse, grassy, wet kind of ground locally called the Fossagh. The soil of the baronies of Ratoath and Dunboyne is a stiff loam, lying immediately upon a substratum of tenacious clay, and immediately, at a greater or less depth, upon a strong, blue limestone gravel, the free use of which as a manure occasions the growth of teeming crops of wheat. The soil of the sea board part of the baronies of Duleek is very light, almost resembles sea sand, and possesses so little vegetative power as to be fit for little else than rabbit warrens; but that of the interior districts becomes increasingly heavy or loamy, till it acquires, about the great north road from Dublin, the character of either a rye soil, or a light clay soil superincumbent on yellow clay.
...
Agriculture.
The bad system of hay making noticed in our article on the baronies of Kells, seems to prevail throughout the county. Turnips are cultivated by comparatively few persons, and to a comparatively small extent. The scourging system of successive grain crops, till the land is foul and exhausted, prevails in Meath as in too many other parts of Ireland; but, in consequence of the great fertility and self restorative power of the soil, it is much less ruinous than even in some other limestone counties; and some extensive farmers understand and practise such a system of rotation as keeps the soil in heart, and alternates green crops with grain. Most of the small farmers commit the fault of letting their corn stand till it is too ripe. Thrashing mills, Scotch two horse ploughs, and a few rollers and winnowing machines, are the only modern agricultural instruments which have been generally introduced. Ploughing is much more commonly practised with four horses than with two. Except with the majority of labourers, and with a few of the small farmers, drilling has superseded the lazy bed method of growing potatoes; and in consequence of the greatly increased produce which the change has occasioned, potatoes are raised, not only for human food, but for the fattening of cattle. In 1841, there were, within the rural districts of the county,
5,339 farms of from 1 acre to 5 acres,
3,971 of from 5 to 15 acres,
1,637 of from 15 to 30 acres, and
2,554 of upwards of 30 acres;
and, within the civic districts,
10 of from 1 acre to 5 acres,
2 of from 5 to 15 acres, and
2 of from 15 to 30 acres.
In the same year, there were within the whole county, 7,585 farmers, 34,734 servants and labourers, 394 ploughmen, 362 gardeners, 39 graziers, 1,575 herds, 114 care takers, 1 land agent, 274 land stewards, 34 gamekeepers, and 57 dairy keepers.
...
Live Stock.
Most of the black cattle are improved crosses between various native breeds and the Durham or short horned. Great improvements have been made in sheep by crossing with the Leicester breed; and the increased value of sheep since the great rise in the price of wool, has occasioned sedulous attention to be directed toward still farther improvement. An anxiety to obtain spirited and active horses has led the farmers into the error of breeding them too high and too light for agricultural work; and this error, combined with the low condition in which too many farmers keep their horses, accounts for so unduly large a number being used in proportion to the extent of land. The pigs usually kept are of good breeds; and, almost everywhere, they are much better attended to than other kinds of stock.
In 1841, there were, within the rural districts of the county, on farms or holdings not exceeding 1 acre, 1,351 horses and mules,
833 asses,
7,053 cattle,
1,313 sheep,
12,972 pigs, and
118,843 poultry;
on farms of from 1 acre to 5 acres,
1,605 horses and mules,
286 asses,
3,494 cattle,
815 sheep,
4,597 pigs, and
43,989 poultry;
on farms of from 5 to 15 acres,
3,974 horses and mules,
162 asses,
6,756 cattle,
4,510 sheep,
5,413 pigs, and
51,081 poultry;
on farms of from 15 to 30 acres,
3,286 horses and mules,
149 asses,
6,241 cattle,
7,063 sheep,
2,944 pigs, and
28,128 poultry;
and on farms of upwards of 30 acres,
12,130 horses and mules,
420 asses,
59,610 cattle,
105,693 sheep,
7,467 pigs, and
58,049 poultry.
The totals of these classes of live stock, together with the estimated value of each, were
22,346 horses and mules, £178,768;
1,850 asses, £1,850;
83,154 cattle, £540,501;
119,394, sheep, £131,333;
33,393 pigs, £41,741; and
300,090 poultry, £7,502.
Grand total of estimated value of live stock within the rural districts, £901,695.
In the same year, the total of the classes of live stock, and of their estimated value, within the civic districts of the county, were,
360 horses and mules, £2,880;
40 asses, £40; 317 cattle, £2,061 ;
14 sheep, £15;
1,214 pigs, £1,517; and
2,540 poultry, £64.
Grand total of estimated value of live stock in the civic districts, £6,577.
...
Woods
“The quantity of wood within this county,”
said Mr. Thompson, the statist of Meath, in 1802,
“is so very small, that it is not worth consideration under a separate head. The plantations, however, are very extensive about the different noblemen and gentlemen's seats; some arrived at, others approaching fast to maturity, and many in a state of infancy. Full grown plantations consist, for the most part, of groves immediately surrounding old mansions and modern houses. They are chiefly composed of ash, elm, oak, sycamore, and lime, and, in a few instances, Scottish and spruce fir. Those that are coming to maturity, are generally hedgerows or skirting plantations, and are chiefly composed of ash and elm, in the former; beech, fir, and different kinds of forest trees, in the latter; and those in their infancy are situated in extensive ranges on the sides of hills, or large clumps within the view of gentlemen's seats. Planting precipices and crags, and turning into profit ground, hitherto considered unprofitable, seems to be viewed in its proper light; and every spot of such ground which heretofore was left waste, is now fenced in and planted.”
The principal plantations at the time when this passage was written, were those of Allenstown, Headfort, the Fingal estate, Dangan, Summerhill, Slane, and Beaupark. In 1841, there were within the county
119 continuous acres, and 37,398 detached trees of oak,
229 acres and 401,008 detached trees of ash, 48 acres and 44,768 detached trees of elm, 99 acres and 40,857 detached trees of beech,
517 acres and 30,450 detached trees of fir,
10,749 acres and 865,236 detached trees of mixed plantations, and
1,006 acres and 2,527 detached trees of orchards, in all,
12,767 acres of continuous plantations, and 1,422,244 detached trees, the latter equivalent to 8,889 acres, and the two making a grand total of 21,656 acres of wood. Of the continuous plantations, there were planted previous to 1791, 54 acres of oak, 76 of ash, 27 of elm, 30 of beech, 52 of fir, 2,781 of mixed trees, and 464 of orchards.
....
Manufactures and Trade.
...
A vidimus of the manufactures of the county in 1802, shows that, at that time, from 200 to 300 looms were employed in weaving sackcloth in the town of Navan, that a number of looms were employed upon the same fabric in various other parts of the county, that Dowlas and three quarters wide coarse linens were manufactured for exportation, principally in the baronies of Slane and Duleek, that linen of a finer texture was made in the baronies of Demifore and Lower Kells, and sold in the market of Oldcastle,  that some coarse friezes, for home consumption, were made in the baronies of Dunboyne and Ratoath, that whiskey was distilled in large quantities at Navan, that both writing paper and coarse kinds of paper were made at Navan, that a cotton mill was in the course of erection on the Boyne below Navan, that an extensive bleach green existed on the Nanny Water, that the straw hat manufacture was extensively carried on in the town and neighbourhood of Dunboyne, and at Galtrim in the barony of Deece, that coarse pottery was manufactured at Knock, in the barony of Morgallion, that large quantities of nails were made near Garristown, and that tanyards existed in almost every town of the county. The best complete view, though only an indirect one, of the recent state of manufactures and trade, is afforded by the personal statistics of productive industry, exhibited in the Census of 1841; and we therefore condense and subjoin them:
Fishermen, 20;
millers, 198;
maltsters, 2;
brewers, 3;
distiller, 1;
barm maker, 1;
bakers, 190;
confectioners, 23;
salt manufacturer, l;
fishmongers, 7;
egg dealers, 59;
fruiterers, 9;
cattle dealers, 99;
horsedealers, 15;
pig jobbers, 97;
salesmasters, 2;
corn dealers, 15;
seedsmen, 5;
butter merchants, 4;
huxters and provision dealers, 54;
butchers, 92;
poulterers, 4;
victuallers, 40;
grocers, 68;
wine merchants, 2;
factory workers, 68;
flax dressers, 85;
carders, 65;
spinners of flax, 1,458;
spinner of cotton, 1;
spinners of wool, 1,484;
spinners of unspecified classes, 4,596;
winders and warpers, 40;
wool dressers, 7;
weavers of cotton, 42;
weavers of linen, 249;
weavers of woollen, 43;
weavers of lace, 88;
weavers of unspecified classes, 1,031;
manufacturers of lace, 2;
manufacturers of woollen, 2;
bleachers, 8;
dyers, 18;
cloth finishers, 4;
curriers, 13;
tanners, 19;
leather dresser, 1 ;
makers, 149;
boot and shoe makers, 828;
tailors, 700;
sempstresses, 573;
dress makers, 609;
milliners, 56;
stay makers, 2;
knitters, 713;
hatters, 38:
bonnet makers, 30;
straw workers, 6;
glovers, 2;
hair dressers and barbers, 4;
leather dealer, 1;
flaxdealer, 1 ;
hosiers, 3;
haberdashers, 2 ;
linendraper, l;
woollen drapers, 11;
pedler, l;
venders of soft goods, 40;
rag and bone dealers, 30;
architects, 2;
builders, 13;
brick makers, 11;
potters, 9;
stone cutters, 99;
lime burners, 12;
bricklayers, 10;
stone masons, 468;
slaters, 59;
thatchers, 32;
plasterers, 29;
sawyers, 53;
carpenters, 1,198;
cart makers, 15;
cabinet makers, 10;
coopers, 109:
turners, 33;
millwrights, 20;
wheelwrights, 24:
shipwrights, 2;
pump borers, 19;
reed maker, 1;
brush maker, 1;
basket makers, 36;
broom makers, 7;
miners, 2;
iron founders, 6;
blacksmiths, 708;
whitesmiths, 31;
nailers, 118;
cutlers, 2;
gunsmiths, 3;
braziers and coppersmiths, 3;
wireworkers, 2;
bell hanger, l;
plumbers, 2.;
tinplate workers, 15;
tinkers, 31;
machine makers, 9;
optician and mathematical instrument maker, 1;
watchmakers, 3;
coach and car makers, 7;
carver and gilder, 1;
saddlers, 19;
harness makers, 89;
whip makers, 2;
rope makers, 4;
paper makers, 15;
paper stainers, 2;
chandlers and soap boilers, 22;
mat makers, 18;
painters and glaziers, 93;
netmaker, 1;
sieve makers, 14;
upholsterer, 1;
feather dressers, 5;
delph dealers, 2;
booksellers and stationers, 4;
timber merchant, 1;
coal merchants. 2;
ironmongers, 9;
merchants of unspecified classes. 27;
dealers of unspecified classes, 709;
shop keepers of unspecified classes, 230;
shop assistants, 136;
tradesmen of unspecified classes, 12;
and apprentices of unspecified classes, 10.
Fairs.
...
The following are the principal fairs held within the county:
Ashbourne, Jan. 6, June 6. July 29, Oct. 31;
Athboy, Jan. 9, March 12, May 4, Aug. 4, Sept. 24, Nov. 9;
Ardcath, May 7:
Armalrega, May 19, July 19, Oct. 24, and Dec. 7:
Ballyboggan, Sept. 25;
Bective, May 16 and Nov. l;
Carlanstown Bridge, March 12, May 1, Aug. 6. and Nov.19;
Clonard, May 23 and Nov. 13;
Crossakeel, May 9, Aug. 16, and Dec. 15;
Drogheda. March 11, April 14, May 12, June 21, Aug 28, Oct. 30, Nov. 17, and Dec. 15; Drumcondra, April 21, Aug. 10, Oct. 21, and Dec. 13;
Duleek, March 25, May 3, June 24, and Oct. 18;
Dunboyne, July 9,
Dunshaughlin, cattle, May 13, June 11, Oct. 14, Nov. 10;
Garretstown, Aug. 26;
Kells, Feb. 27, May 27, July 16, Sept. 9, Oct. 16, Nov. 17;
Kildalky, Feb. 27, May 14, Aug. 9, and Dec. 13;
Kilmainham Wood, April 14, May 5, June 16, Oct. 30;
Longwood, Feb. 2, May 1, June 9, July 12, Dec. 11;
Navan, April 20, June 15, Sept. 14, Dec. 7;
Nobber, April 25, May 25, June 20, Aug. 15, Oct. 13, Nov. 14;
Oldcastle, Feb. 24, April 13 and 27, May 15, June 8, July 13, Aug. 20, Sept. 21, Oct. 28, Dec. 14;
Rathmolion, April 19, June 30, Sept. 29;
Ratoath, April 18, June 1, Nov. 20;
Skreen, June 20, Oct. 12;
Slane, April 2, June 2, Sept. 2, and Nov. 8;
Summerhill, April 30, June 9, Sept. 22, and Nov. 25;
Trim, March 27, May 8, June 17, Oct. 1, Nov. 16;
Warrenstown, Jan. 1, April 28, June 27, Sept. 20.
Communications.
...
The Boyne, as was noticed in the section upon “Waters,” is navigable to Navan. The Royal Canal is very nearly coincident with the southern boundary line of the county from the vicinity of Kilcock, to a point 1 1/2 mile east of Enfield; it then passes 3 1/4 miles a short way within the boundary line, and close to Enfield; it next passes for 2 1/2 miles entirely without the county; and it then runs for 5 miles right across the northern division of the barony of Moyfenragh.
The Dublin and Drogheda railway, opened in 1844, passes along the sea board of the barony of Upper Duleek. The northern main trunk railway, projected by the Public Commissioners, passes from Dublin by Dunboyne and Dunshaughlin to Navan; and the two main branches of it pass thence respectively northward in the direction of Armagh, and north westward past Kells, in the direction of Virginia, Cavan, and Enniskillen. A line of railway has been projected to connect the Drogheda terminus of the Dublin and Drogheda railway with the town of Navan. A railway surveyed by private parties, and submitted to the Public Commissioners, proposes to connect Dublin with Armagh by the nearest route, and passes along the east border of Meath, a little east of Dunboyne and Slane. Another railway surveyed by private parties, submitted to the Public Commissioners, and proposed to connect Dublin with Galway, and to send off branches to Kells and to Sligo, enters Meath in the vicinity of Kilcock, pursues a route a little north of that of the Royal Canal, and sends off its branch north north westward by Trim to Kells from a point about 4 miles north west of Kilcock.
The principal roads through the county are the Dublin and Belfast mail road through Ashbourne and Drogheda, the Dublin and Londonderry mail road through Slane, the Dublin and Enniskellin mailroad through Dunshaughlin, Navan, and Kells, and a series of cross mail roads from Kilcock through Summerhill, Trim, Athboy, and Kells to Nobber. The county surveyor was appointed in 1834; he superintended thence till the close of 1841, the formation of 24 miles of new road; and he had under his charge at the latter date about 5,000 miles of road.
Divisions and Towns.
...
The county of Meath is divided into the two great districts of Dunshaughlin and Kells, the former on the east and the latter on the west of the Boyne. The district of Dunshaughlin is divided into the baronies of Drogheda, Lower Duleek, and Upper Duleek in the north east, Skreen north of the centre, Ratoath in the east, Dunboyne in the south east, Upper Deece in the south, Lower Deece in the west, and Lower Moyfenragh in the south west. The district of Kells is divided into the baronies of Lower Kells in the north west, Morgallion in the north, Lower Slane in the north east, Upper Slane, Lower Navan, and Upper Navan in the east, Upper Moyfenragh in the south west, Lune and Upper Kells in the west, and Demifore in the extreme west wing.
The Act 3 and 4 Victoria, cap. 108, erected part of the parish of St. Mary, formerly within the county of the town of Drogheda, into the barony of Drogheda in the county of Meath; but this small barony, it was expected, would speedily be merged in the barony of Lower Duleek.
The Act 6 and 7 William IV., cap. 84, transferred 5 townlands of the parish of Enniskeen and 1 of Nobber from Lower Slane to Morgallion, pop., in 1841, 500; 1 townland of Nobber from Morgallion to Lower Kells,—pop. 384; the entire parish of Rathkenny from Lower Navan to Upper Slane, pop. 2, 177; the entire parish of Dunmoe from Morgallion to Lower Navan, pop. l l l ; l townland of Danestown from Skreen to Lower Duleek, pop. 88; 1 townland of Piercetown, the entire parish of Ballymagarvey, and part of 1 townland of Duleek, from Upper Duleek to Lower Duleek, pop. 271; the entire parishes of Brownstown and Kilmoon from Upper Duleek to Skreen, pop. 1,060; 1 townland and part of another in Duleek from Lower Duleek to Upper Duleek, pop. 6; 2 townlands of Agher from Upper Deece to Lower Deece, pop. 94; and 3 townlands and part of another of Castlerickard from Carbery in Kildare to Upper Moyfenragh, pop. 138. he barony of Lower Deece, as at present constituted, contains 9 whole parishes, and part of another parish; Upper Deece, 8 whole parishes and part of 2 other parishes; Drogheda, part of one parish; Lower Duleek, 7 whole parishes, and part of 5 other parishes; Upper Duleek, 6 whole parishes, and part of 4 other parishes; Dunboyne, 2 whole parishes; Demifore, 6 whole parishes, and part of l other parish; Lower Kells, 7 whole parishes, and part of 3 other parishes; Upper Kells, 6 whole parishes, and part of 3 other parishes; Lune, 4 whole parishes, and part of another parish; Morgallion, 6 whole parishes, and part of 3 other parishes; Lower Moyfenragh, 3 whole parishes, and part of another parish; Upper Moyfenragh, 3 whole parishes, and part of 2 other parishes; Lower Navan, 9 whole parishes, and part of 2 other parishes; Upper Navan, 6 whole parishes, and part of another parish; Ratoath, 11 whole parishes, and part of 2 other parishes; Skreen, 19 whole parishes, and part of 2 other parishes; Lower Slane, 6 whole parishes, and part of another parish; and Upper Slane, 7 whole parishes, and part of 2 other parishes.
The towns and principal villages, are in Lower Deece, Kilmessan;
in Upper Deece, part of Kilcock;
in Lower Duleek, Duleek, Julianstown, Mornington, Donacarney, and Yellowfurze;
in Upper Duleek, Stamullen, Gormanstown, and Ardeath;
in Dunboyne, Dunboyne and Clonee;
in Demifore, Oldcastle;
in Lower Kells, Carlanstown, Kilmainham, and Moynalty;
in Upper Kells, Kells and Crossakeel;
in Lune, Athboy, Kildalkey, and Ballivor;
in Morgallion, Nobber, Kilberry, Wilkinstown, and Ballinee;
in Lower Moyfenragh, Summerhill, Enfield, Rathmoylan, and part of Trim;
in Upper Moyfenragh, Longwood;
in Lower Navan, Bohermeen and the chief part of Navan;
in Upper Navan, part of Trim;
in Ratoath, Ratoath, Dunshaughlin, Greenoge, and Ashbourne;
in Skreen, Littlefurze, Factory, Skreen, Tara, and part of Navan;
in Lower Slane, Drumcondra and Siddan;
and in Upper Slane, Slane.
The ecclesiastical division of the county of Meath, as exhibited by Dr. Beaufort in 1792, shows 147 parishes with 44 churches in the dio. of Meath, half a parish in the dio. of Kilmore, and a small part of a parish in the dio. of Armagh.
...
Statistics.
...
In 1824, according to Protestant returns, the number of schools within the county was 272, of scholars 10,407. of male scholars 6,460, of female scholars 3,611, of scholars whose sex was not specified 336, of scholars connected with the Established church 1,280, of scholars connected with Presbyterian bodies 5, of scholars connected with other bodies of Protestant dissenters 0, of scholars connected with the Roman Catholic community, 8,817, and of scholars whose religious connection was not ascertained 305;
and, according to Roman Catholic returns, the number of schools was 272, of scholars 10,722, of male scholars 6,797, of female scholars 3,739, of scholars whose sex was not specified 186, of scholars connected with the Established church 1,249, of scholars connected with Presbyterian bodies 4, of scholars connected with other bodies of Protestant dissenters 0, of scholars connected with'the Roman Catholic community 9,326, and of scholars whose religious connection was not ascertained 143.
The statistics of education and of ecclesiastical matters for 1834 are given under the diocesan divisions, and may be estimated for the county of Meath by reference to our article on the diocese of Meath. At the close of 1842, the National Board had in full operation within the county 96 daily schools, conducted by 69 male and 34 female teachers, attended by 6,278 male and 4,904 female scholars, and aided during the year with £852 10s. in salaries, £123 I0s. in free stock, and £182 17s 1 1/2d in school requisites at half price.
During 1843, the number of committals on charges of felony was 329, of cases before magistrates and petty sessions 184, and of persons committed for drunkenness 9. Of the 329 persons committed on charges of felony, 53 were charged with offences against the person, 19 with offences against property committed with violence, 107 with offences against property committed without violence, 2 with malicious offences against property, and 148 with offences not included in the above classes; 7 were sentenced to transportation, 88 to imprisonment, and 22 to pay fines, 14 were discharged on sureties or were convicted but not sentenced, 4 were found insane on arraignment, 90 were found not guilty on trial, 75 had no bill found against them, 27 were not prosecuted, and 2 were bailed and not tried.
The constabulary force consisted, on January 1, 1844, of 1 third rate county inspector, 1 first rate sub inspector, 3 second rate sub inspectors, 3 third rate sub inspectors, 1 first rate head constable, 7 second rate head constables, 52 constables, 220 first rate sub constables, 43 second rate sub constables, and 9 mounted police;and the cost of maintaining this force during 1843 was £13,696 Is. 7 1/2d.
The constabulary force has its head quarters at Navan, and is distributed through 46 stations, in the 8 districts of Navan, Trim, Athboy, Kelts, Slane, Duleek, Dunshaughlin, and Drogheda. Tbe staff of the county militia is stationed at Kells. A stipendiary magistrate resides at Summerhill. The county gaol is at Trim; bridewells are at Trim, Navan, and Kells; and the district Lunatic asylum, to which Meath may send 31 patients, is at Dublin. The assizes are held at Trim; quarter sessions, at Trim, Navan, Kells, Drogheda, Duleek, and Dunshaughlin; and petty sessions, at Athboy, Crossakeel, Drumcondra, Duleek, Dunboyne, Dunshaughlin, George's Cross, Julianstown, Kells, Longwood, Moynalty, Navan, Oldcastle, Slane, Summerhill, and Trim.
An infirmary and a fever hospital are at Navan; workhouses, at Dunshaughlin, Kells, Navan, Oldeastle, and Trim; savings' banks, at Kells, Navan, and Oldeastle; loan funds, at Athboy, Castletown, Duleek, Kells, Navan, Rathmoylan, and Skreen; and dispensaries, at Athboy, Castletown, Crossakeel, Drumcondra, Duleek, Dunboyne, Dunshaughlin, Enfield, Julianstown, Kells, Kentstown, Kilmainham, Moynalty, Navan, Nobber, Oldcastle, Raddanstown, Ratoath, Skreen, Slane, Stamullen, Summerhill, Syddan, and Trim.
...
The annual amount of property valued far the poor rate is £573,870; tbe annual amount of property valued under the Act 6 and 7 William IV. is £527,594; and the amount of grand  jury presentments for 1842, was £30,341. The number of tenements valued for the poor rate is 25,760; and of these, 14,436 were valued under £5, 3,336. under £10, 1,825, under £15, 1,104, under £20, 784, under £25, 520, under £30, 700, under £40,  437, under £50, and 2,619 at and above £50.
...
Two members were sent to the Irish parliament from the county at large, and two from each of the boroughs of Ratoath, Duleek, Navan, Trim, Kells, and Athboy. Only the two members for the county at large are sent to the imperial parliament. Constituency, in 1841, 1,236; of whom 385 were £50 freeholders, 141 were £20 freeholders, 515 were £10 freeholders, 1 was a £50 leaseholder, 36 were £20 leaseholders 128 were £10 leaseholders, 2 were £50 rentchargers, 26 were £20 rent chargers, and 2 were £10 copyholders.
...
Population
in 1792, 69,000; in 1821, 128.042; in 1831, 136,872; in 1841, 183,828. Houses, in 1792, 13,693; in 1821, 23,478; in 1831; 23,803: in 1841, 30,785. The following statistics are all at the year 1841. Males, 92,494; females, 91,334; families, 32,737. Inhabited houses, 30,785; complete uninhabited houses, 877; houses in the course of erection, 96. First class inhabited houses, 694;
second class, 3,793;
third class, 15,575;
fourth class, 10,723.
Families residing in first class houses, 745;
in second class houses, 4,212;
in third class houses, 16,416;
in fourth class houses, 11,364.
Families employed chiefly in agriculture, 23,978;
in manufactures and trade, 6,043;
in other pursuits, 2,716.
Families dependent chiefly on property and professions, 584;
on the directing of labour, 10,023;
on their own manual labour, 21,325;
on means not specified, 805.
Males at and above 15 years of are who ministered to food, 41,325; to clothing, 3,193; to lodging, 3,559; to health, 73; to charity, 4 ; to justice, 404; to education, 253; to religion, 155; unclassified, 3,430; without any specified occupations, 4,836.
Females at and above 15 years of are who ministered to food, 2.512; to clothing, 9,378; to lodging, 16; to health, 46; to charity, 1; to justice, 1; to education, 125; to religion, 10; unclassified. 7,711; without any specified occupation, 37,591.
Males at and above 5 years of age who could read and write, 28,659; who could read but not write, 14,656; who could neither read nor write, 37,949.
Females at and above 5 years of age who could read and write, 13,367; who could read but not write, 16,896; who could neither read nor write, 50,273.
Males above 4 years of age attending primary schools, 5,591; attending superior schools, 66.
Females above 4 years of age attending primary schools, 4,488; attending superior schools, 45. Percentage of males at and above 17 years of age unmarried, 49; married, 46; widowed, 5.
Percentage of females at and above 17 years of age unmarried, 49; married, 46; widowed, 14;
Physicians, 30;
surgeons, 18;
apothecaries, 25;
midwives, 11;
nursetenders, 35;
Barristers, 8;
coroner, 1;
attorneys, 15;
petty sessions clerks, 4;
excise officers. 37;
bailiffs, 22;
gaol keepers, 10;
inspector of weights and measures, 1;
school teachers, 220 males and 71 females;
ushers and tutors, 27 males and 8 females;
governesses, 46;
music and dancing masters, 6.
Clergymen of the Established church. 49;
Methodist ministers, 2;
Presbyterian ministers, 3;
Roman Catholic clergymen, 58;
ministers of religion whose denominational connection was not specified, 24;
clerks, 11;
scripture readers, 4;
sextons, 14.
...
Antiquities.
...
Interesting and extensive earthworks occur at Tara, the ancient seat of the Irish monarchy; and two gorgeous torques, or collars of gold, were dug up there in 1813. Four remarkable Druidical tumuli are situated on the banks of the Boyne, between Slane and Drogheda; and one of them of great extent, at New Grange, has been opened, and found to embowel some curious chambers and Druidical stones. A surprisingly large accumulation of old animal bones, accompanied with many early and minute antiquities, has been discovered and explored in the vicinity of Dunshaughlin. Considerable ruins exist of the old castles of Scurlogestown, Dunmoe, Asigh, and Athlumney; and the entire piles of Slane castle, and one or two other old castellated structures, have been fitted up as modern residenees. Pillar towers exist at Kells and Donaghmore.
The most remarkable of numerous ancient ecclesiastical edifiees, entire, ruinous, or much dilapidated, are the monastery of Duleek, the abbey of Bective, the front of the cathedral of Clonard, St. Columb's house at Kells, and the abbey of Trim. The old monastic establishments within the county, which figure either obseurely, distinctly, or prominently in record,
are a monastery of Augustinian Canons at Trim, built or rebuilt in the 12th century by the De Lacys, and granted at the dissolution to Luke Dillon and to Sir Anthony St. Leger,
another at Ballyboggan, existing in the 13th century, and granted to Sir W. Birmingham and Rev. E. Fitzgerald;
a third, at Clonard, alleged to have been founded in the 6th century by St. Finian;
a fourth, at Clonard, founded in the 12th century by the De Lacys;
a fifth, at Colpe, a cell to St. Anthony in Wales in the 12th century, and granted to Sir Gerard Moore;
a sixth, at Duleek, same as the receding;
a seventh, at Duleek, alleged to have been founded in 805, and granted to H. Draycot;
an eighth, at Duleek, used in the 15th century as an hospital for the sick;
a ninth, at Kells, alleged to have been founded in 550 by St. Columb, and to Sir G. Plunket;
a tenth, at Navan, founded in the 12th century by Jocelyn Nangle, and granted to John Wakeley;
an eleventh, at Slane, alleged to have been founded by St. Patrick, and succeeded by a Franciscan monastery;
a twelfth, at Dysert Moholmoe, alleged to have been founded in the 6th century by St. Colman;
a thirteenth, near Ratoath, of unknown date;
a fourteenth, at Domnac Thadraig, alleged to have been founded by St. Patrick;
a fifteenth, at Kilabban, alleged to have been founded in the 6th century by St. Abban;
and a sixteenth at Ecratulack, alleged to have been founded in the 7th century by St. Librenus;
...
a nunnery of Augustinian canonesses, at Clonard, endowed by O'Melaghlin, of Meath, and made a cell to Odder;
a second, at Odder, founded in the 12th eentury by the Barnwalls;
a third, at Lismullen, founded about the year 1240,
by Avicia Le Corner; and a fourth, at Kil Ailbe, alleged to have been founded in the 6th century by St. Abban;
an abbey of canons of the congregation of St. Victor, at Enniscorthy, founded about the year 1240, by Gerald De Prendergast and John St. John, bishop of Ferns, and granted at the dissolution to Thomas, Earl of Ormond;
a preceptory of the knights of St. John of Jerusalem, at Kilmainhambeg, founded in the 12th century by Walter De Lacy, and granted at the dissolution to Patrick Barnwall;
a second, at Kilmainhamwood, founded in the 13th century by the family of Preston;
a priory of crutched friars under the rule of St. Augustine, at Newtown,Trim, founded in the 13th century by the bishop of Meath;
a second, near Kells, founded in the 12th century by Walter De Lacy, and granted at the dissolution to John Wakeman;
and a third, near Drogheda founded in the 13th century by the younger Walter De Lacy, and granted to Henry Draycot;
a Cistertian or Bernardine abbey, at Beaubec, founded in the 12th century by Walter De Lacy, and afterwards made a cell to the abbey of Furnes, in Lancashire;
and a seeond, at Bective, founded in the 12th century by Murchard O'Melaghlin, prince of Meath, and granted to Alexander Fitton;
a Dominican monastery, at Trim, founded in 1263, by Geoffrey De Genmeville;
a monastery of Friars minors or Observantines, at Trim, founded in the 13th century by King John or the Plunkets, and granted to Sir Anthony St. Leger;
a monastery of the third order of Franciscans, at Slane, founded in 1512, by Christopher Fleming, Baron of Slane, and granted to the founder's successor James Fleming;
a monastery of Augustinian eremites at Screen, founded in the 14th century by Francis Feipo;
and a Carmelite friary, at Athboy, founded in 1317, by William De Loundres, and granted at the dissolution to Thomas Casey.